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You can lead a horse to water but you can't make it drink, goes the old saying. But how worrying is it when a pet with a previously healthy appetite starts leaving its food and losing weight for no apparent reason?
While the occasional dirty dish shouldn't give too much cause for concern, a dog, cat, rabbit or any other animal that constantly shuns their food shouldn't just be labelled a picky eater.
Anorexia is a medical term for lack of appetite, and there are many causes of the condition in animals - some of them simple and easily solved, and others far more complex and needing expert help.
When an animal stops eating, its body relies on mobilising fat reserves through the liver to provide calories. But in cats, this can swiftly lead to liver disease. Rabbits and other small animals can also fall victim very quickly to dehydration and undernourishment as their intestines need constant fuel to keep their organs healthy.
So how do you know when your pet's refusal to eat is down to plain pickiness or something more serious? Well, firstly, avoid self-diagnosing at home, advises the animal charity PDSA.
'I can't stress enough the importance of first of all ruling out any medical reasons,' says PDSA senior vet Elaine Pendlebury. 'I would far rather an owner call me over something they may feel is trivial than let time lapse by,' she says. 'There's nothing worse for a vet than treating a very sick animal knowing that if the owner had acted sooner, more could have been done to help.'
So if there's no medical problem, it's time to explore the other reasons why your pet may not want to eat. For example, pets can be very sensitive to the things that go on around them, says Elaine.
'Environmental conditions can affect your pet's eating habits, especially in cats,' she explains. 'Heavy traffic areas, noise, other animals and dirty food containers can deter a cat from eating, so try to be sensitive to your pet's behaviour.'
A vet for more than 40 years, Harvey Locke says that sometimes a loss of appetite is the only signal of an underlying medical condition. 'A dog with arthritis is easy to detect, but animals can look OK yet be very sick. Bitches who have been spayed will go through false pregnancies where their hormone levels can become abnormal. This kind of thing is easily treated, but it could be something far more serious such as slow-progressing kidney degeneration. We are also seeing an increase in sugar diabetes among dogs and cats because of a growing problem of obesity in animals.'
Once a medical problem has been ruled out, Harvey suggests that owners take a long look at the way they feed their pets.
'Some owners may worry if their animal doesn't eat two or three meals a day, like they do,' he says. 'This has come about with the domestication of animals. In the wild, a dog would eat only when it had made a kill, which would be every two to three days. Dogs are cunning animals too, and they will become fussy if they know that if they hold off long enough, they will get a bit of fillet steak. Believe me, no dog will starve itself, and will eat its own food when it's hungry.'
The situation is slightly different in cats and rabbits, says Harvey, who is also president of the British Veterinary Association. 'If a cat goes too long without food, it can suffer liver failure. Rabbits can suffer gut stasis, where the intestines stop moving and become blocked. Rabbits are also natural grazers, and if they stop eating, they can develop severe dental problems.' He advises owners to get into good feeding habits and consult their vet for any nutritional advice.
Other ailments such as worms, dental problems, infections and blockages in the throat or intestinal tract can all be ruled out by your vet, first with a simple physical examination and then, if necessary, an X-ray or ultrasound scan. And animals respond well to antibiotics and other treatment if an illness is caught in time.
Stress is another factor. Moving house or the arrival of a new baby or another animal can all interfere. In particular, dogs can experience a loss in appetite when grieving. 'Dogs get very attached to people and other animals, and when they have lost a companion, it can affect their behaviour and mood, which has a knock-on effect on their eating,' says Elaine.
On a less emotional level, pets quickly get a taste for human food, which can make their own dish seem far less appealing. 'I treated a dog whose owner fed it titbits of pizza until that's all it wanted to eat, but owners doing this are making a rod for their own back,'says Elaine.
'A dog or a cat may wait patiently for anything to 'fall' from the dining room table, but once they realise they are not going to get anything, they wander back to their food dishes.'
Changes in the weather can also cause a decrease in appetite, and it is common for pets to be less active in the summer months.
A sudden change to a pet's diet can be another problem, while certain foods can cause irritation. Fatty or greasy foods may cause gas and cramping and lead to a loss in appetite. Some animals can even be allergic to some proteins in pet foods such as chicken, beef, wheat, corn or soy.
Even if your pet's loss of appetite is not caused by a medical problem, a sustained period of not eating may lead to serious medical trouble.
Elaine advises a common-sense approach by owners. 'Animals pick up on a lot of fuss and it usually makes them even more reluctant to eat,' she says. 'Try to keep a cool head. First, seek a vet's opinion, then try to glean an understanding, through trial and error, of your pet's likes and dislikes when it comes to feeding.'
Three socks were stuck in Leo's bowel
When one-year-old Labrador Leo went off his food for the second time in just a few months, his owners Dean Redden and Georgina Short quickly sought help.
Leo had previously undergone an operation to remove a meat bone that had lodged in his rectum. This time, something else was blocking Leo's bowel, and after life-saving surgery, the item was revealed to be three socks!
Leo had pica - a behaviour normal in puppies but a risk in adult pets, most commonly dogs - where animals use their mouth to explore objects but mistakenly eat them. Warning signs include loss of appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain, restlessness and dehydration.
My rabbits are anorexic
For the past three years, Janet Warnes' bunnies Prince, a seven-year-old Dutch, and Tia, a four-year-old cross, have suffered with a recurring anorexia problem that causes them to suddenly stop eating and become underweight, withdrawn and lethargic.
Although anorexia is common in rabbits and is usually caused by stress, Janet's vet can't say why her rabbits repeatedly fall victim to the condition - usually every three months. 'I put it down to the stress of living on a busy main road,' says Janet.
My kitten was infested with worms
Samantha Plant expected the usual teething problems when she brought home Sammy and Rolo, two eight-week-old kittens. But she couldn't have imagined that one would be fighting for its life a week later.
Rolo was off his food, and alarm bells started ringing when Sam found him collapsed in his litter tray. He had a severe worm infestation, which had left him with internal bleeding.
'The vet told us the chances of Rolo surviving were very slim,' says Sam. 'He looked so limp and lifeless that I really thought there was no way back for him.'
Rolo was dewormed, given strong medication and put on a high-calorie diet. Against all the odds, he began to recover.
PDSA senior vet Tim Browning says: 'There are 2.5 million unwormed cats in the UK. Worming and other preventive care is essential to keep pets fit and healthy.'
What is separation anxiety?
Separation anxiety is commonly seen in dogs, which are social animals. When left alone, some dogs can become destructive, poo indoors, excessively salivate, pant and pace, or bark and howl. This can occur for a variety of reasons, such as boredom, a lack of house training or because they have been stimulated or frightened by something outside. However, it can be due to anxiety at being separated from their owner.
Why does it occur?
It occurs with dogs that are used to having human company and can't cope with the solitude and separation if left alone. It can affect any breed and at any age, but typically occurs in dogs that are over-attached to the owner, often following them around the house - even to the bathroom. Rescue dogs can be susceptible to this problem as new owners often take a couple of weeks off work to help the dog settle in. The owners spend all their time giving the dog lots of attention and then, suddenly, the situation and routines are totally changed when the owners return to work and the dog can't cope. Even dogs that have been owned from a puppy can develop separation problems, particularly if they are owned by and spend all their time with one person.
Things to try
Many people mistakenly think that getting another dog will help, but it rarely does, as the problem is due to the owner/dog relationship. To prevent serious separation problems developing, dogs need to be trained to get them used to being periodically separated from their owner while he or she is at home. Dog gates are useful, as they enable the dog to be physically separated from, but still see, the owner. Over time, the room door can be gradually closed so that the dog gets used to being separated from its owner behind a solid door. Leaving a radio/TV on or a recording of the owner's voice may also help. There are also a number of 'calming' products available, such as Adaptil, Zylkene and Serene-Um. If the dog has soiled indoors or been destructive when left alone, it must never be told off as this may increase its anxiety.
If it gets very serious:
Some dogs can become so distressed that they may cause damage to themselves, or to doors and window frames, as they try to follow their owner out of the house. In this case, veterinary advice should be sought for a referral to a qualified behaviourist. In some instances, drug treatments may be necessary.
Q: I have three cats and they have one litter tray between them, but my vet has said that I should have more trays. Why is this?
A: When cats defecate outdoors, they normally urinate and excrete in separate locations. I usually recommend one tray per cat, plus one extra. Not providing enough trays can lead to house-soiling problems. However, some cats are happy to share litter facilities. You need to provide whatever suits your cats best and consider your circumstances, such as whether the cats also have the opportunity to 'go' outdoors.
Inga MacKellar, animal behaviourist
Q: My dog loves people, but she constantly barks at the postman and delivery people. Why might she be doing this?
A: This is quite a common problem with dogs. As dogs are pack animals, they have a very strong sense of territory. The most common reason why dogs bark at people who come near their territory is to make them go away. And, in most cases, the people do go away, for example the postman or newspaper boy or girl, therefore the dog believes that this is due to their barking. This perceived success increases the dog's confidence to bark at the next potential intruder and so the barking escalates. If this pattern of behaviour is allowed to continue over a period of time, it can become an automatic reaction.
Inga MacKellar, animal behaviourist
Q: We recently bought a male British Shorthair cat. We've always had our kittens spayed or neutered by around six months old, but we've been told that pedigree cats need to develop all their pedigree characteristics first. Is this true?
A: Breeders will have all sorts of advice when it comes to treating their kittens, but one thing that obviously goes against 'breeding' is to neuter. Your British Shorthair should reach maturity by six months and will continue to grow even if you castrate him at that time. In my opinion, the benefits of neutering outweigh any potential concerns and male cats of around that age can begin to stray, fight and scent mark - not attributes that many owners will desire for a house cat. Take your British Shorthair to the vet at six months and decide together what is best for him.
Scott Miller, vet
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